1.Aziz DM,Enbergs H.Stimulation of bovine sperm mitochondrial activity by homeopathic dilutions of monensin.Homeopathy.2005 Oct, 94, 4, 229-32. Mitochondrial activity is an important marker for the health of sperm. It’s linked to sperm motility and in research laboratories monensin is commonly used as an inhibitor for sperm mitochondrial activity. The researchers in this study examined the effects of the 5X to the 14X homeopathic potencies of monensin on the activity of the mitochondria of sperm taken from mature bulls. All of the potencies produced a stimulatory effect on the bull sperm mitochondrial activity, with the 9X producing the strongest of these effects

2. Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, et al.Inhibition of Human Basophil Degranulation by Successive Histamine Dilutions.Inflammation Research, 48, Supplement 1, 1999, S17-18. In this controversial, blinded multi-centre trial (which confirmed earlier studies published in Nature in 1988), homeopathic potencies of histamine were found to substantially reduce the potential for degranulation by sensitised basophils when exposed to allergens.

3. Belon P., Cumps J., Ennis M., Mannaioni P.F., Roberfroid M., Sainte-Laudy J., Wiegant F.A.Histamine Dilutions Modulate Basophil Activation.Inflammation Research, 2004, May, 53, 5, 181-8. In this study, which was a replication of work by Jacques Benveniste published in Nature in 1988, the researchers attempted to use homeopathic dilutions of histamine to inhibit the activation of human basophils exposed to an inflammatory mediator. The study was carried out blind in 4 separate laboratories. Histamine dilutions equivalent to 30X and 38X were found to inhibit basophil activation and subsequent histamine release.

4. Casaroli- Marano RP, Alegre J, Campos B.Infrared Changes in Potentised Solutions.Revista Homeopatica,1998, 38, 5- 12. In this experiment, 70% alcohol/water solutions were serially diluted 1 in 100 up to 30 times, with and without succussion at each step. On examination of each of these significant spectral differences were found between the solutions that were succussed and those that were not, indicating that dilution and succussion may produce structural changes to the molecules in the solution. This may provide further evidence for the possibility of a “memory” of water.

5. Chirila M, Hristescu S, Manda G, Neagu M, Olinescu A.The Action of Succussed Substances on the Human Lymphocytes and PMN Granulocytes in Vitro Stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Zymosin Opsonised (ZO).Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Congress Report, 1991, June, 1, 3, 166-167. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from people with a history of allergy to bee products (Group 1), and from people who were immunosuppressed (Group 2). These cells were incubated in culture media supplemented with a succussed water control, various homoeopathic potencies of bee venom (for Group 1 cells), or cortisone (for Group 2 cells), and the cells were grown. The proliferation of Group 1 cells was inhibited by the potencies of bee venom, indicating that these remedies may be useful in the management of allergies to bee products. The effects of the potencies of cortisone on the Group 2 cells varied from stimulation to inhibition.

6. Chirumbolo S, Signorini A, Bianchi I, Lippe G, Bellavite P.Effects of Homoeopathic Preparations of Organic Acids and Minerals on the Oxidative Metabolism of Human Neutrophils.British Homeopathic Journal, 1993, 82, 237-244. The in vitro adhesion and superoxide production of human neutrophils were monitored in the presence of various homoeopathic medicines. Of these, Sulphur 6X, Manganum phos 6X and 8X, and Magnesium phos 6X and 8X all lead to a 15-30% increase in these parameters.

7. Delbancut A, Barrouillet MA, Maury-Brachet R, Boudou A, Dorfman P, Cambar J.Mechanistic Approach to the Effect of High Dilutions of Cadmium to Protect from Cytotoxic Cadmium doses in Renal Tubular Cell Cultures.International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects,1993 Giri Meeting, BHJ, April, 1994, 83, 84-100 Material concentrations of cadmium have strong toxic effects on renal tubules. The researchers involved in this study found that pre-treatment with homeopathic cadmium 40X, and subsequent exposure to material concentrations of cadmium, led to a significant reduction in cadmium induced damage.

8.Enbergs H.Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes.Immunol Invest.2006, 35, 1, 19-27. In one of the few experiments carried out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the concentrations tested.

9. Fougeray S, Moubry K, Vallot N, Bastide M.Effect of High Dilutions of Epidermal Growth Factor on in-vitro Proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines. 6thGiri Symposium, Munich, Oct 1992, reported inBritish Homeopathic Journal, 93, 82. In this experiment, it was shown that 19X and 45X homeopathic potencies of Epidermal Growth Factor inhibited the proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines.

10. Fleisbach A, Fejfar V, Spranger J.Effects of Homoeopathic Potencies: Growth ofSaccharomyces cerevisiaein Potentised Copper Sulphate Dilutions.British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, Supplement 1, S65. Material concentrations of copper sulphate inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in this study, researchers determined what effect if any ahomeopathic medicinemade from copper sulphate would have on this organism. On exposure to homeopathically potentised copper sulphate, a potency dependant inhibition or enhancement of growth was seen.

11.Gebhardt RAntioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.Arzneimittelforschung.2003, 53, 12, 823-30. This laboratory study examined the effect of a homeopathic combination product and its separate components for antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on liver cells grown in laboratory tissue-culture. Protective effects against oxidation of the cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were shown by Carduus, China and Nux mosch, and the combination provided the same level of protection as these 3 individual remedies combined. Carduus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum alb all showed an antiproliferative effect against cell proliferation agents on the cells and the combination exhibited the same effect. Carduus and the combination both increased the conjugation effectiveness of glutathione.

12. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P.Antiviral Action of Euphorbium Compositum and its Componants.Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2001, 8, 207-212. In this in-vitro study, human cell cultures were infected with influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus or herpes simplex virus type1, and then treated with Euphorbium compositum, a homeopathic complex. Various anti-viral drugs such as acyclovir, ribavirin and amatadine were used as positive controls against which to compare the results of the complex. When compared with control cells exposed to the same concentration of ethanol used in the complex, the homeopathic complex showed anti-viral properties comparable to the effects of the drugs against respiratory syncitial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.

13. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P, Weiser M.Influence of homeopathically processed Coenzyme Q10 on proliferation and redifferentiation of endothelial cells.Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, Oct, 11, 5,:267-73. CoEnzyme Q10, known for its ability to regulate cell metabolism and proliferation, was assessed for its ability to promote the same functions after being homeopathically potentised. Undifferentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures were exposed to various potencies of CoQ10 (5X to 10X) The cell division rate was then assessed by flow cytometry and cell differentiation determined by von Willebrand factor expression. The 7X to 10X potencies of CoQ10, and particularly the 8X potency, increased cell proliferation while none of the potencies appeared to enhance cell differentiation.

14. Moss VA, Roberts A, Simpson K.Action of Remedies on Movement of Macrophages and Leucocytes.Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 113-114. Laboratory measurements of guinea pig macrophages and human leucocytes exposed to the homoeopathic remedies Belladonna, Hepar sulph, Pyrogenium, Silica and Staphylococcinum, showed that these remedies caused an increase in the movement of these cells through a Boyden micropore filter. This may indicate that the remedies produce an increase in this aspect of immune competence.

15.Oberbaum M,Glatthaar-Saalmüller B,Stolt P,Weiser M.Antiviral activity of Engystol: an in vitro analysis.J Altern Complement Med.2005 Oct, 11, 5, 855-62. Cultured tissue cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human rhinovirus (HRV), adeno 5 (A5V) and respiratory syncytial virus were exposed to Engystol, a homeopathic combination product. These cells were then assayed for virus clearance using plaque reduction, virus titration and Elisa methods. The results of these assays showed an 80% reduction in HSV-1 specific proteins, a 73% reduction in A5V specific proteins and a reduction in infectivity of RSV by 37% and HRV by 20%.

16. Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P.Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):975-82. In this uncontrolled study, 15 people suffering from various intracranial tumors were treated with a combination Ruta 6C and homoeopathic calcium phosphate. All forms of tumors, particularly gliomas, were found to regress under treatment with these medicines and the trial subjects also exhibited an increase in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes.  Further examination of a possible mechanism for the tumor-killing effect of this combination found that it was due to cancer cell telomere erosion, causing a selective early death of these cells.

17. Poitevin B, Davenas E, Benveniste J.In Vitro Immunological Degranulation of Human Basophils is Modulated by Lung Histamine andApis mellifica.Br J Clin Pharmacol,1988, 25, 439-444. In this study, potentised dilutions ofApis mellificaand Histamine were found to significantly reduce basophil degranulation in vitro.

18.Ramachandran C,Nair PK,Clèment RT,Melnick SJ.Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations.J Altern Complement Med.2007 May;13(4):403-7. The aim of the researchers from Miami Children’s Hospital in Florida who carried out this study was to determine the effects of homeopathics on cellular signalling pathways, specifically, the effects of 2 anti-influenza homeopathic combination products on normal human leukocyte cultures. When the researchers compared the effects of the homeopathic combinations to 20% ethanol solvent controls, it was found that exposure to either of the homeopathic combinations stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by these cells.

19. Singh L.M., Gupta G.Antiviral Efficacy of Homeopathic Drugs against Animal Viruses.British Homeopathic Journal, 1985, July, 74, 3. Researchers at the Indian Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow carried out this study to determine the inhibiting effects, if any, of various potencies of 10homeopathic remedieson chicken embryo virus and simliki forest virus, a virus capable of causing encephalitis, paralysis ad death in mice. Homeopathic typhoidinum 200C, hydrophobinum 1M, tuberculinum 1M, nux vomica 200C and malandrinum 1M all produced 100% inhibition of the chicken embryo virus.

20. Sukul NC, Sukul A, Sinhababu SP.Potentised Mercuric Chloride and Mercuric Iodide enhance Alpha Amylase activity in vitro.Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 217-220. In part a repetition of a trial published in 1954, researchers determined that Mercuric chloride 30C and Mercuric iodide 30C, both of which theoretically should contain no molecules of either of the original substance, were able to promote the hydrolysis of starch in vitro. This tends to support the view that the water molecules in the remedy retain the “memory” of the original molecule through the homeopathic potentisation process.

21.Sunila ES,Kuttan R,Preethi KC,Kuttan G.Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2009, 6, 2, 257-263. This article describes a series of tests carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala, India, on cells grown in the laboratory using various homeopathically prepared medicines to ascertain their effects on these cells. Mother tincture, 30C and 200C potencies of various substances as well as potentised alcohol controls were separately added to the individual growth media in which certain lymphoma, carcinoma, fibroblast and ovary cells were grown. After analysing the effects of these materials on the various cell cultures, it was found that some of these caused significant cell death during short and long term incubation when compared to alcohol controls. It was also found that some of the test materials inhibited thymidine uptake in lung fibroblasts (therefore inhibiting growth), Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosin specifically, induced cell death in lymphoma cells, and Carcinosin was able to induce the expression of p53, which has been found to be capable of causing tumor suppression.

22.Walchli C,Baumgartner S,Bastide MJ.Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study.Altern Complement Med.2006 Jun, 12, 5, 421-7. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with either low doses, or homeopathic potencies, of cadmium chloride on the ability of normal lymphocyte or cancerous lymphocyte cultures to withstand exposure to toxic doses of cadmium. Normal lymphocytes exposed to toxic levels of cadmium which were pretreated with either low dose of cadmium or potentised cadmium showed a significant increase in viability. This effect was the same in the cancerous lymphocytes except that these cells showed no increase in viability after pre-treatment with potentised cadmium.

23.Witt CM,Bluth M,Albrecht H,Weisshuhn TE,Baumgartner S,Willich SN.The In-Vitro Evidence for an Effect of High Homeopathic Potencies–a Systematic Review of the Literature.Complementary Therapies in Medicine.2007 Jun;15(2):128-38. This was essentially a meta-analysis of all of the in-vitro studies that have attempted to demonstrate a homeopathic effect to date, carried out by Professor Claudia Witt and colleagues at the Department of Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charity University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. The aim here was to search all appropriate databases for relevant studies, determine which studies met the quality criteria set by the researchers, and then to determine which, if any of these, exhibited a statistically significant effect in this area. 67 papers were identified that met the quality criteria and of these, 73% found that an effect from high potencies can be demonstrated. The majority of these studies involved the effects of potentised substances on basophils. Replication of some of these studies has been carried out.

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